Treatment of Sickle Cell Anaemia
Sickle-cell disease, or sickle-cell anaemia is a life-long blood disorder characterized by red blood cells that assume an abnormal, rigid, sickle shape. Sickling decreases the cells’ flexibility and results in a risk of various complications. The sickling occurs because of a mutation in the haemoglobin gene. Life expectancy is shortened, with studies reporting an average life expectancy of 42 and 48 years for males and females, respectively.
Sickle-cell disease, usually presenting in childhood, occurs more commonly in people from some parts of tropical and sub-tropical regions where malaria is or was common. One-third of all indigenous inhabitants of North East India carry the gene, because in areas where malaria is common, there is a survival value in carrying only a single sickle-cell gene (sickle cell trait). Stem cell derived blood stem cell. Stemcell doctor have able to treat this disease with the hematopoietic stem cell (blood stem cell).
How does stem cell transplant help?
In a person with sickle cell disease, the bone marrow produces red blood cells that contain hemoglobin S. This leads to the complications of sickle cell disease. To prepare for a bone marrow (stem cell) transplant, strong medicines, called chemotherapy, are used to weaken or destroy the patient’s own bone marrow, stem cells, and infection fighting system. – This is done so the patient does not reject the new blood cells coming from the donor. The patient’s bone marrow then is replaced with blood-forming stem cells from a donor who does not have sickle cell disease. – This can be a donor with normal hemoglobin or sickle cell trait. – The actual transplant is given like a blood transfusion through an IV tube. The new bone marrow then produces red blood cells that are healthy since they do not contain a lot of hemoglobin S.
What are the benefits of bone marrow (stem cell) transplant?
Bone marrow (stem cell) transplant is the only treatment available today that can cure sickle cell disease. If the transplant is successful, the patient is cured from sickle cell disease. St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital was the first organization to find the cure for sickle cell disease through bone marrow transplant. In 1982, a St. Jude patient had leukemia and sickle cell disease. A St. Jude doctor performed the transplant using bone marrow donated from the patient’s brother. The patient was cured of both leukemia and sickle cell disease. The doctor wrote about this case in The New England Journal of Medicine and presented it at the 25th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology so other people could benefit from the cure.